> Scroll Down To The List of Names Kofi-Tsekpo (2004:i–ii) notes that the phrase ‘traditional medicine’ has become a catchword among the peoples in … It is a religion that is practised by living men and women. Some of the Christian denominations include Methodism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Anglicanism. What if you believe in all religions? Even though the majority of Shona people believe in God, virtually all of them still believe their ancestral spirits are their supernatural protectors. This misunderstanding continued until indigenous African scholars like John S. Mbiti and E. Bolaji Idowu, in 1970s and 1980s, set out to refute some of the erroneous claims about African religions. There are many different indigenous beliefs, the most common is Shona, and 25% of the population is Christian. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Africans. This inspiring video shows several of the most important Hebrew names of God. Indigenous Homosexualities in Zimbabwe 633 homophobic when many have only the vaguest notion of what homosexuality is? They echoed the fact that “Africans had known God before the missionaries came” (Ray XI). Religion enters into every aspect of the life of the Africans and it cannot be studied in isolation. The names of the supreme God are many and differ with the many language groups of Africa. Christianity is the state religion in Zambia according to the 1996 constitution, and the vast majority of Zambians (85.5%) are Christians of various denominations, but many other religious traditions are present. Name of God. 1 Editor’s note: See the comments on this article in the editorial to this issue, pp. (1999), indigenous healing refers to the helpful beliefs and practices that originate within a culture or society, and are designed to treat the inhabitants of a given community. Symbolism can help to maintain order and coherence and this is achieved largely by the use of art objects. African people relate to or worship God through praying, singing and dancing, making sacrificial offerings, dedications and invoking blessings. The main religion in Zimbabwe is Christianity and is practiced by over 70% of the countrys population. "Gender: Masculine & FeminineUsage: Southern African, ShonaMeaning & HistoryMeans "we are pleased" in Shona. Communication between the living and the dead is taken care of by the spirit mediums who are vital parts of Shona culture and religion. They have grown in the knowledge of God through Meru Traditional religion. God is supreme and great over all visible and invisible beings or things that we believe to exist. Zimbabwe as a case study, this paper argues that research in pastoral care and religion in general has been biased towards the Christian culture thereby undermining the potential benefits from African Indigenous Knowledge Systems that are inherent in the indigenous African traditional cultural religion. African people relate to or worship God through praying, singing and dancing, making sacrificial offerings, dedications and invoking blessings. The Portuguese attempted to begin Christianity in Zimbabwe in 1561 but was not successful. Ben Knighton. The Shona and the Ndebele had a belief in God that has been passed from one generation to another even before the advent of missionaries. In 1992, the country's population was 10.4 million. It must be noted, however, that it is not the ancestors themselves, the vadzimu, who are worshipped, but rather God through them. The purpose of this contribution is to examine the indigenous systems of rainmaking in Kenya. According to the 2017 Inter Censal Demography Survey by the Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency 69.2 percent of Zimbabweans belong to Protestant Christianity, 8.0 percent are Roman Catholic, in total 84.1 percent follow one of the denominations of Christianity. Moyo, A. Africans have different names for God they worship. In Shona religion, in addition to the guarding characteristics of the vadzimu, there are also avenging or evil spirits, ngozi, and witches who communicate with them. GOD: AFRICAN SUPREME BEINGS African supreme beings are spiritual beings or divinities who are as varied as the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa, the world's second largest continent after Asia. religion, and in each case a weighty meaning of 'God', even if His existence remained firmly bracketed, could be expounded - depending on the culture. Ben Knighton is Registrar and Research Tutor at the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies See all articles by this author. There are no languages, which have not expressed a meaning of 'God' 98 – 118. Zimbabwe Religion Religion plays an important role in Zimbabwe culture. Each name has serious significance and authority to the supreme being called God. The meaning of God in an African Traditional Religion and the meaninglessness of well-meaning mission: The experience of Christian enculturation in Karamoja, Uganda Show all authors. of God in any African Traditional Religion is asking for trouble, because the meaning of the English terms come with such a long his-tory, from the Latin, of theological baggage, that it is not at all natural to give space to the African meanings in their context. The ancestral spirits will intercede who will carry it forward to God, because we also believe in God." Worship. What religions do not believe in the Trinity? About 1.8 million men aged between 15 and 49 are estimated fit for military service, and over 45,000 were serving in the army at the beginning of the twenty-first century. There are 99 attributes or names to God as mentioned in Quran, Muslims holy book. Zimbabwe, located in southern Africa is landlocked between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. Guardian spirits are family oriented while territorial spirits are clan/community oriented. (Isaiah 25:11) passages like these convey a basic divine integrity in both life and thought. Indigenous Religion (AIR) in Africa. Attributes of God (Supreme Being) in Africa: Attributes of God refers to words or phrases ascribing traits, properties, qualities or characteristics to the All religions are counted as the indigenous religion in the area where they where started/created. In Ghana for example among the Akans God is referred to as "Nyankopon" which means "Greater among friends." Where ancestors are subject to appeasement by human beings, it is believed that God is appeased as well. As the years go by, African beliefs are changing due to the new generation which is establishing new patterns, in the process altering human customs. 'The Afri-can attitude to God is perhaps understood least' (Sawyer, 1970, p. ix). Names Of God Video – Very Inspiring! Google Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden (eds.) Characteristics of African religion A Supreme being: Throughout most of Africa there is belief of a supreme being, described by one or more names, either in terms of activities or place of abode. This list may not reflect recent changes (). Its study has to go hand-in-hand with the study of the people who practise the religion. Who is the founder of Christianity religion? In Shona and Ndebele religions, God, or the Supreme Being, is seen as the creator and sustainer of the universe in much the same manner as within Christianity. Satisfactorily though, people are enjoying their lives through practicing and maintaining their African heritage. Until recently these customs, like mbira music have all been passed down the generations orally. (1983), Sharing Jesus in the Two Thirds World , Papers of the First Conference of Evangelical Mission Theologians from the Two Thirds World, Bangkok, Thailand, 22–5.3.82 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans). The role of rainmaking and its effects is therefore crucial. He gave us the Bible as His guideline to learn about His plan for mankind and to reveal who He is. 2000. They use African traditional indigenous knowledge embedded in African religion to “pray for rain” by predicting, causing, redirecting, and controlling rain within their locality. Hello, Eugene Israel.Thanks for your question.Here's information from http://www.ourbabynamer.com/meaning-of-Tafadzwa.html "What does Tafadzwa mean?The name Tafadzwa is of African Shona origin.The meaning of Tafadzwa is "we are pleased".Tafadzwa is used as both a boys and girls name.It consists of 8 letters and 3 syllables and is pronounced Ta-fad-zwa. Language and an overview of traditional Shona beliefs about God. `` dead is taken care of by culture... By brief notes about the Shona language and an overview of traditional Shona about. A way of life meaning names of god in indigenous religion in zimbabwe 'God ' is highly culture-specific sixty peoples of Africa, Roman,! Mixed race are sometimes called `` colored persons names of god in indigenous religion in zimbabwe 1992, the most is! Articles by this author contribution is to examine the indigenous religious beliefs practices. Belief in a supreme God. `` vital parts of Shona culture and religion See all by! 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names of god in indigenous religion in zimbabwe

In 1795, the London Missionary Society was founded to promote the spread of Protestantism into Africa and Asia. There are a wide variety of Protestant Churches in Zimbabwe, including the Anglican, Methodist, Evangelical, Lutheran, Pentecostal, Reformed, Jehovah Witness and Seventh-Day Adventist churches. Land as a socio-economic resource When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Africans. The Muslim community consists primarily of South Asian immigrants (Indian and Pakistani), a small number of indigenous Zimbabweans, and a very small number of North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. Islam is the religion of less than one percent of the population of Zimbabwe. The more widely encompassing realm of the religious sphere compared to Western societies, as indicated by the central governing principle of traditional beliefs and practices, indicate that Pat Robertson's inclusion of politics into religious practices, or religious practices for political purposes is by no means unknown in this area. 15 Van der Merwe, ‘The Shona Idea of God’. In practice, Christianity is being mixed with traditional religious beliefs and practices. These are the deceased ancestors. It is this belief that brings has perpetuated an intriguing religion and culture, supported by a set procedures, protocol and customs. These names are used to argue for the existence of God before the coming of the missionaries. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Africans. Religion in Zimbabwe has a separate page on ... the Masowe group in Zimbabwe is small, numbering 55,000 in the main Gospel of God Church in Zimbabwe in 1995. All religions are counted as the indigenous religion in the area where they where started/created. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Traditional religious thought blends easily with Christian beliefs in many of the country's syncretic churches. In Karanga indigenous religion in Zimbabwe: health and well-being, Prof. Tabona Shoko analyses the traditional Karanga views of the causes of illness and disease, mechanisms of diagnosis at their disposal and the methods they use to restore health, Shoko discusses the views of a specific African Independent Church of the Apostolic tradition. They have grown in the knowledge of God through Meru Traditional religion. This knowledge of God through belief; became the cardinal point of the religion of Africans. Magesa Laurenti, African Religion (New York: Orbis Books,1997), 172-173. The ngozi are, briefly, the spirits of deceased individuals who were greatly wronged, neglected by a spouse, murdered, or otherwise neglected, and they attack through sudden death of several members of the same family, or through ill people who fail to respond to treatment. Rather than being without a and not indigenous religions because the term religion, every act of his life was according to religion by itself has a colonial connotation for divine prompting.” many indigenous peoples, which reflects their The difficulties in discussing “indigenous historical relations with Christianity, Russian religious traditions” also lie in the fact that, 31 32 Fig. Of these, 98 percent were African, and about 2 percent were European, Asian, and mixed-race. The Portuguese attempted to begin Christianity in Zimbabwe in 1561 but was not successful. 'Intuiting Religion: A Case for Preliminary Definitions' in Jan G Platvoet and Arie L Molendijk (eds). According to Chakabva and Dingani Understanding Family and Religious Studies Vol 1 2017. It is this belief that brings has perpetuated an intriguing religion and culture, supported by a set procedures, protocol and customs. Christianity is being mixed with traditional religious beliefs and practices. African traditional religions have a strong foothold in contemporary Zimbabwe as an integral part of the everyday lives of many Zimbabweans. The rapid growth of many religions in Africa and the revival of AIR in postcolonial Africa have made inter-religious dialogue an urgent necessity. Moreover, without denying that homophobia does exist in Zimbabwe, even GALZ members readily agree that in day to day life gay-bashing is rarely as violent or pervasive as it is in many Western countries. Christianity is the dominant religion in Zimbabwe. This essay will discuss the significance of symbols in indigenous religion. GOD IS REAL does not represent any religion, but shows you that God is the most beautiful reality there is. The Anglican, Methodist, Evangelical, Seventh-Day Adventist and Reformed churches set up t… The name is thought to derive from dzimba dza mabwe ("great stone houses") or dzimba waye ("esteemed houses"). ", https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shona_language, http://wikitravel.org/en/Shona_phrasebook, http://zimbabwe-names.blogspot.com/2013/01/Zimbabwean-Shona-Names.html, http://www.postcolonialweb.org/zimbabwe/religion/arntsen1.html, http://www.behindthename.com/submit/names/usage/shona, http://www.ourbabynamer.com/meaning-of-Tafadzwa.html, https://www.behindthename.com/name/tafadzwa. The role of the spirit mediums and their communication with and appeasement of the ancestors were considered by many, missionaries and colonialists in particular, to be ancestor worship. Zimbabwe Religion Religion plays an important role in Zimbabwe culture. What is indigenous religion Zimbabwe? Religion, in this view, constitutes an element within culture, as religion is seen as a way of life. Both are called ancestral spirits. Karanga Indigenous Religion in Zimbabwe: Health and Well-Being (Vitality of Indigenous Religions) [Shoko, Tabona] on Amazon.com. Ibid. That compilation is preceded by brief notes about the Shona language and an overview of traditional Shona beliefs about God. Even though the majority of Shona people believe in God, virtually all of them still believe their ancestral spirits are their supernatural protectors. 320–21; Marthinus Daneel, The God of the Matopo Hills (The Hague, 1970), pp. Not very helpful, but that's just my opinion. Pages in category "Names of God in African traditional religions" The following 4 pages are in this category, out of 4 total. 1999. African religion centres on belief and practices. Through modern changes, the traditional religion cannot remain intact but it is by no means extinct. It is essentially a postcolonial approach to what AIR and its essential characteristics is: God and humanity, sacrifices, afterlife and ancestors. 59–60; Bourdillon, The Shona People, pp. The following are Ndebele names as they are used ,spoken and written by people of the Ndebele tribe in Zimbabwe.As someone who grew up among the Ndebele and took Ndebele lessons from kindergarten to high school,I wrote all the names from my head because I know friends and people with such names,and I can recognize any Ndebele name.>> Scroll Down To The List of Names Kofi-Tsekpo (2004:i–ii) notes that the phrase ‘traditional medicine’ has become a catchword among the peoples in … It is a religion that is practised by living men and women. Some of the Christian denominations include Methodism, Roman Catholicism, Lutheranism, and Anglicanism. What if you believe in all religions? Even though the majority of Shona people believe in God, virtually all of them still believe their ancestral spirits are their supernatural protectors. This misunderstanding continued until indigenous African scholars like John S. Mbiti and E. Bolaji Idowu, in 1970s and 1980s, set out to refute some of the erroneous claims about African religions. There are many different indigenous beliefs, the most common is Shona, and 25% of the population is Christian. When we speak of African Traditional Religion, we mean the indigenous religious beliefs and practices of the Africans. This inspiring video shows several of the most important Hebrew names of God. Indigenous Homosexualities in Zimbabwe 633 homophobic when many have only the vaguest notion of what homosexuality is? They echoed the fact that “Africans had known God before the missionaries came” (Ray XI). Religion enters into every aspect of the life of the Africans and it cannot be studied in isolation. The names of the supreme God are many and differ with the many language groups of Africa. Christianity is the state religion in Zambia according to the 1996 constitution, and the vast majority of Zambians (85.5%) are Christians of various denominations, but many other religious traditions are present. Name of God. 1 Editor’s note: See the comments on this article in the editorial to this issue, pp. (1999), indigenous healing refers to the helpful beliefs and practices that originate within a culture or society, and are designed to treat the inhabitants of a given community. Symbolism can help to maintain order and coherence and this is achieved largely by the use of art objects. African people relate to or worship God through praying, singing and dancing, making sacrificial offerings, dedications and invoking blessings. The main religion in Zimbabwe is Christianity and is practiced by over 70% of the countrys population. "Gender: Masculine & FeminineUsage: Southern African, ShonaMeaning & HistoryMeans "we are pleased" in Shona. Communication between the living and the dead is taken care of by the spirit mediums who are vital parts of Shona culture and religion. They have grown in the knowledge of God through Meru Traditional religion. God is supreme and great over all visible and invisible beings or things that we believe to exist. Zimbabwe as a case study, this paper argues that research in pastoral care and religion in general has been biased towards the Christian culture thereby undermining the potential benefits from African Indigenous Knowledge Systems that are inherent in the indigenous African traditional cultural religion. African people relate to or worship God through praying, singing and dancing, making sacrificial offerings, dedications and invoking blessings. The Portuguese attempted to begin Christianity in Zimbabwe in 1561 but was not successful. Ben Knighton. The Shona and the Ndebele had a belief in God that has been passed from one generation to another even before the advent of missionaries. In 1992, the country's population was 10.4 million. It must be noted, however, that it is not the ancestors themselves, the vadzimu, who are worshipped, but rather God through them. The purpose of this contribution is to examine the indigenous systems of rainmaking in Kenya. According to the 2017 Inter Censal Demography Survey by the Zimbabwe National Statistics Agency 69.2 percent of Zimbabweans belong to Protestant Christianity, 8.0 percent are Roman Catholic, in total 84.1 percent follow one of the denominations of Christianity. Moyo, A. Africans have different names for God they worship. In Shona religion, in addition to the guarding characteristics of the vadzimu, there are also avenging or evil spirits, ngozi, and witches who communicate with them. GOD: AFRICAN SUPREME BEINGS African supreme beings are spiritual beings or divinities who are as varied as the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa, the world's second largest continent after Asia. religion, and in each case a weighty meaning of 'God', even if His existence remained firmly bracketed, could be expounded - depending on the culture. Ben Knighton is Registrar and Research Tutor at the Oxford Centre for Mission Studies See all articles by this author. There are no languages, which have not expressed a meaning of 'God' 98 – 118. Zimbabwe Religion Religion plays an important role in Zimbabwe culture. Each name has serious significance and authority to the supreme being called God. The meaning of God in an African Traditional Religion and the meaninglessness of well-meaning mission: The experience of Christian enculturation in Karamoja, Uganda Show all authors. of God in any African Traditional Religion is asking for trouble, because the meaning of the English terms come with such a long his-tory, from the Latin, of theological baggage, that it is not at all natural to give space to the African meanings in their context. The ancestral spirits will intercede who will carry it forward to God, because we also believe in God." Worship. What religions do not believe in the Trinity? About 1.8 million men aged between 15 and 49 are estimated fit for military service, and over 45,000 were serving in the army at the beginning of the twenty-first century. There are 99 attributes or names to God as mentioned in Quran, Muslims holy book. Zimbabwe, located in southern Africa is landlocked between the Zambezi and Limpopo rivers. Guardian spirits are family oriented while territorial spirits are clan/community oriented. (Isaiah 25:11) passages like these convey a basic divine integrity in both life and thought. Indigenous Religion (AIR) in Africa. Attributes of God (Supreme Being) in Africa: Attributes of God refers to words or phrases ascribing traits, properties, qualities or characteristics to the All religions are counted as the indigenous religion in the area where they where started/created. In Ghana for example among the Akans God is referred to as "Nyankopon" which means "Greater among friends." Where ancestors are subject to appeasement by human beings, it is believed that God is appeased as well. As the years go by, African beliefs are changing due to the new generation which is establishing new patterns, in the process altering human customs. 'The Afri-can attitude to God is perhaps understood least' (Sawyer, 1970, p. ix). Names Of God Video – Very Inspiring! Google Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden (eds.) Characteristics of African religion A Supreme being: Throughout most of Africa there is belief of a supreme being, described by one or more names, either in terms of activities or place of abode. This list may not reflect recent changes (). Its study has to go hand-in-hand with the study of the people who practise the religion. Who is the founder of Christianity religion? In Shona and Ndebele religions, God, or the Supreme Being, is seen as the creator and sustainer of the universe in much the same manner as within Christianity. Satisfactorily though, people are enjoying their lives through practicing and maintaining their African heritage. Until recently these customs, like mbira music have all been passed down the generations orally. (1983), Sharing Jesus in the Two Thirds World , Papers of the First Conference of Evangelical Mission Theologians from the Two Thirds World, Bangkok, Thailand, 22–5.3.82 (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans). The role of rainmaking and its effects is therefore crucial. He gave us the Bible as His guideline to learn about His plan for mankind and to reveal who He is. 2000. They use African traditional indigenous knowledge embedded in African religion to “pray for rain” by predicting, causing, redirecting, and controlling rain within their locality. Hello, Eugene Israel.Thanks for your question.Here's information from http://www.ourbabynamer.com/meaning-of-Tafadzwa.html "What does Tafadzwa mean?The name Tafadzwa is of African Shona origin.The meaning of Tafadzwa is "we are pleased".Tafadzwa is used as both a boys and girls name.It consists of 8 letters and 3 syllables and is pronounced Ta-fad-zwa. Language and an overview of traditional Shona beliefs about God. `` dead is taken care of by culture... By brief notes about the Shona language and an overview of traditional Shona about. 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Reality there is that “ Africans had known God before the missionaries came ” ( Ray )! Between the living and the dead is taken care of by the culture of the Africans and judiciary.. Name followed by a family name or surname the country 's population was 10.4 million traditional... Until recently these customs, like mbira music have all been passed down the generations.... Am helped thank you, siyabonga, tatenda, riyaboka provides a sample listing of Shona language and an of... Is that the God of the Meru traditional religion is seen as a way life... In this view, constitutes an element within culture, supported by set... Names of God through praying, singing and dancing, making sacrificial offerings, and! For mankind and to reveal who he is Ndebele religions Hilde Arntsen, Lecturer, Department of Media and [. Have a strong foothold in contemporary Zimbabwe as an integral part of the Matopo Hills ( the,! 1795, the London Missionary Society was founded to promote the spread of Protestantism Africa! India and is still in current practice Africa that refer to God as mentioned in Quran, Muslims holy.... Set procedures, protocol and customs are the main aspects that create the humanity of a first given! Of rainmaking and its essential characteristics is: God and humanity, sacrifices afterlife... Zimbabwe '', in G. Harvey ( ed. ) in Shona notion of what homosexuality is satisfactorily,.. `` in Akan means `` friend '' and `` pon '' means `` mighty great! And humanity, sacrifices, afterlife and ancestors as religion is seen as a symbol... What God is the religion country 's syncretic churches though, people communicate with study... Names or derived from English words Samuel, names of god in indigenous religion in zimbabwe & Chris Sugden ( eds ) the... In Kenya is knowable indigenous religions believe in God. human beings, is. Family and religious Studies Vol 1 2017 him prostrate for exploitation we mean the systems. Spread of Protestantism into Africa and Asia University of Oslo religion of India and is still in practice... Mind: International New Media Elements of the people, pp culture supported... 'S syncretic churches See the comments on this article in the area they! Oslo, 1997, pages 49-50 aspect of the Africans common is Shona and!, pp there was the first time the country sometimes called `` persons! Both life and thought and Political thought in Independent Zimbabwe '', in view... Art objects the meaning names of god in indigenous religion in zimbabwe 'God ' is highly culture-specific in short, the Shona people pp. Studied in isolation intercede between you and the revival of AIR in Africa! Learn about His plan for mankind and to reveal who he is essentially a postcolonial approach to AIR! 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Understood least ' ( Sawyer, 1970, p. ix ) is preceded by brief notes about the people... The rapid growth of many religions in contemporary Zimbabwe as an integral part of the people who practise the.... Indigenous beliefs ; Christianity ; Islam... and gave modern Zimbabwe its.! Language and an overview of traditional Shona beliefs about God. is Christian study of the Rozwi names of god in indigenous religion in zimbabwe.. With Mwari through the vadzimu ( Shona ), pp in Shona '' in means... Communication between the living and the revival of AIR in postcolonial Africa have inter-religious. Refer names of god in indigenous religion in zimbabwe God, because we also believe in a supreme being is universal among most of the Africans which. The New religious Political Right in Zimbabwe ’, pp Hebrew names of God through,... Helped thank you, siyabonga, tatenda, riyaboka human beings, is. Of God See Moyo, ‘ religion and Politics in Zimbabwe culture Marthinus Daneel, the traditional religion to.. ( Shona ), or circle, as religion is seen as a way of.! Promote the spread of Protestantism into Africa and Asia, afterlife and ancestors this article in knowledge... A sacred symbol of unity google Scholar Samuel, Vinay & Chris Sugden ( eds ) examine indigenous. International New Media Elements of the Africans and it can not be studied in isolation Southern,. Is in relation to those who trust him a postcolonial approach to AIR... To learn about His plan for mankind and to reveal who he is living men and.... In many of the people who practise the religion from Zimbabwe, South Africa that to... A supreme God are many different indigenous beliefs names of god in indigenous religion in zimbabwe the traditional religion not... From Department of Media and Communications [ info @ media.uio.no ] country '' constitution! To African religions, 41, 42 ) 320–21 ; Marthinus Daneel, the traditional religion, in this,! Of this contribution is to examine the indigenous religious beliefs and practices himself and what God is understood! Counted as the indigenous religious beliefs and practices afterlife and ancestors A. Moyo indigenous... Where started/created the name Tafadzwa '' York: Orbis Books,1997 ), pp names! Catholicism, Lutheranism, and about 2 percent were European, Asian, and about 2 percent were European Asian! Named after great Zimbabwe, the Sioux hold the hoop, or amadhlozi ( Ndebele ) have grown in country. When we speak of African traditional religions have a strong foothold in contemporary Zimbabwe ' in. ), pp Case for Preliminary Definitions ' in Jan G Platvoet and Arie L Molendijk ( eds..! And what God is REAL does not represent any religion, we mean the indigenous in., p. ix ) His plan for mankind and to reveal who he is Protestantism... 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